What are STOCKS?
Stocks are shares of ownership in a company. When you buy stocks of a publicly listed company, you become a stockholder or shareholder of a company. In other words, you become a part-owner of that company.
As a part-owner, you participate in the company’s growth and future profits. Conversely, you may also lose if the company suffers a loss or performs below market expectations.
The number of stocks you acquire will determine how big or small your ownership is. As you acquire more stocks, your ownership stake in the company becomes greater.
How Do You Make Your Money Grow in Stocks?
There are two ways to make your money grow in the stock market:
1. Through an increase in stock price or capital appreciation
Capital appreciation is an increase in the market price of your stock. It is the difference between the amount you paid when buying shares and the current market price of the stock. However, if the company does not perform as expected, the stock price may go down below your purchase price.
You cannot really earn from stock price appreciation unless you sell your shares. Otherwise it is only a book value gain, which means it is not yet converted to cash, and current price may change depending on market forces.
For example, if you buy a share of stock at Php100.00, and it rises to Php110.00, your capital appreciation or gain is Php10.00. Keep in mind that you only realize your gain of Php10.00 minus applicable charges, if you sell at Php110.00. If you choose to hold it and it further increases to Php150.00, your capital gain would be Php50.00. However, if your stock decreases to Php100.00, and you decide to sell it at that price, then your capital gain is zero.
2. Through dividends declared by the company
Dividends are paid out to shareholders, representing earnings of the company that are not going to be reinvested in their business. There are two types of dividends: cash and stock dividends.
A cash dividend represents earnings declared by the company for every share of stock. So, if the company declares a dividend of 25 centavos per share, a stockholder with 10,000 shares will receive a cash dividend of (Php2,500.00 minus tax of 10% for individual Filipino investors)(Php0.25 x 10,000) in cash.
Stock dividends are additional shares given to shareholders at no cost. If the company declares a 25 percent stock dividend, a stockholder with 10,000 shares will be entitled to an additional 2,500 shares of stock. These shares can be sold anytime after the shares have been issued.
The Trading Schedule
In the Philippines, the only operating stock exchange is the PSE.
The PSE has two (2) trading floors in Ayala Center, Makati City and Ortigas Center, Pasig City—where trading participants trade daily from 9:30 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. except Saturdays, Sundays, legal holidays and days when the Central Bank Clearing Office is closed.
Effective January 02, 2012, trading hours are from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., the morning session is from 9:30 a.m. to noon, while the afternoon session starts at 1:30 p.m. until 3:30 p.m. Note that you can start placing your orders 30 minutes before the market opens or at 9:00 a.m.
The PSE has extended the trading hours beginning this October, in a bid to attract more investors and prepare for cross-border trading with neighboring Southeast Asian nations.
Investors may post a buy or sell order even after the trading period. However, this order will only be entered and matched through the PSE’s new trading system known as the PSEtrade, the next trading day.